Azerbaijan has a good geographical location. It is located at the boundary of Europe and Asia, in the centre of transcaucasian transport space, which supported the trade not only in the past (The Great Silk road lead through Azerbaijan), but provides trade possibilities between the countries of „West“ and „East“ nowadays as well.

12% of the territory is covered by forests; 1,7% by water; 54,9% by farmlands.

The distance between Baku and the North pole is 5550 km, from the equator 4440 km.

There are some islands in Caspian Sea that belong to Azerbaijan. One of the largest is Pirallahi with the area of 14,4 km²; Chilov with the area of 11,5 km²; Khara-Zira (3,5 km²) and Boyuk-Zira

(1,4 km²).


More than 8000 rivers flow throught the country. 850 of them are longer than 5 km and 24 rivers have more than 100 km. All of them fall into Caspian Sea, which forms the eastern border of the country.

The most important rivers are Aras (1072 km) and Kura (1515 km). They are the main source of watering and places of water tanks and hydrolectric power plants. There are many upland rivers (Talačaj, Kurkmuchčaj),  freshwater and salty lakes (glacial lakes Tufangol, Gadžikabul, salty lake Bejukšor atď.), which are used functionally as well. Goygol is considered to be the most beautiful lake. It is known as a Blue lake.

One of the largest lakes are Sarisu (67 km²), Aggel (56,2 km²) and Agzibirchala (37 km²).

Azerbaijan is known as a „Museum of mineral waters“. Waters in Nachčivan are also well-known abroad for their  rich chemical content. Groundwaters, termal and mineral springs at the Absheron peninsula and in the mountaineous regions of Talysh mountains, Great and Small Caucasus (mineral water Siraba, Istisu, Badamly) are used as well. Exceptionally rich for hot wells and mineral water is the region Guba-Chachmaz.

There is a relax, sport and health centre with a sanatorium by the river Gusarchay, that is visited mostly for its mineral waters and healing mud.

Caspian Sea Xəzər dənizi

Caspian Sea is the world’s most salty lake. It’s area is 400 000 km² and depth 1025 m. It is important not only from the physical and geographical point of view, but also for the occurence of the rare species of animals and plants and exploitation in the industry and transport. In Azerbaijan, Caspian Sea i sused for fishery, water transport, crude oil output and tourism.

The lenght of the shore of the caspian with Azerbaijan is 456 km.

Mud volcanoes

Interesting natural phenomenon are mud volcanoes. They can be continental and sea (many sea mud volcanoes are in the south of the Caspian Sea). From the total number of 800, as many as 400 mud volcanoes are on the territory of Azerbaijan. Some of them are even recorded in the UNESCO World Heritage List.

The biggest mud volcano in the world, Taragay with the height 410 metres, is located in the south of the natural reserve Gobustan.

Vulcanic activity gives rise to the healing thermal springs. That is also why lot of spas, which use beneficial effects of the springs and mud for healing the central nervous system disorders, dermal, gynecological and other diseases.


Relief of Azerbaijan is diversified, but it could be said, that lowlands and mountain areas prevail.

About 60% of the Azerbaijan’s territory is mountaineous. Most distinguished are Great and Small Caucasus and Talysh mountains. Southeastern part of Great Caucasus belongs to Azerbaijan. Two highest peaks are located there: Bazardüzü (4 466 metres above sea level) and Šachdag ( 4 243 metres above sea level). Small caucasus covers the west and the southwest of the country. It is made from the igneous rocks. Talysh mountains line the southeastern border of Azerbaijan. The area between these two dominants is „filled“ by the Kura-Araz lowland.

The difference in altitude in the country moves around the level of 4 500 metres. For comparison: the lowest situated is the Pricaspaian lowland (-26,5 meters below the sea level) and the highest peak of Azerbaijan is Bazardüzü with the height of 4 466 metres.


The climate of Azerbaijan is influenced by the geographical position of the country, relief and Caspian Sea. 9 out of 11 climatic zones cover the area of the country, that is why the climate changes at every kilometer. Dry subtropical climate characterizes the Absheron and Kura- Araz lowland, humid subtropical climate the south of Talysh mountains, foothills and Liankaran lowland. Moderate climate is typical for the forested areas of Great and Small Caucasus and cold for mountains.

Podnebie Azerbajdžanu ovplyvňuje geografická poloha krajiny, reliéf a Kaspické more. V krajine sa strieda 9 z 11 klimatických pásiem sveta, preto sa podnebie Azerbajdžanu mení z kilometra na kilometer. Suché subtropické pásmo je charakteristické pre Abšeron a Kursko-Arazskú nížinu, vlhké subtropické pásmo pre juh Talyšských hôr, podhorské oblasti a Ljankiaranskú nížinu. Mierne podnebie je typické pre zalesnené oblasti Veľkého a Malého Kaukazu a chladné v horách. The average temperature in lowlands is 25-27°C, in the mountains it is usually 5°C and less; in January it moves from 0°C to 3°C in lowlands and in the mountain regions it reaches -10°C and less.


Many species of animals live in Azerbaijan due to the changes of climate.  Fauna is enriched by species from Iran, Central Asia and countries of Mediterranean. 108 species of animals that live in Azerbaijan are recorded in the Red book, the list of threatened species of animals and plants.


On relatively small area of Azerbaijan you can find almost all species of plants. Flora of Azerbaijan is the richest among other caucasian countries– 66% of all species of Caucasian plants grow here. Moreover, 240 endemic species of plants occur in Azerbaijan.  Azerbaijan is home to the rare species of trees and bushes, such as black lime, yew-tree, Eldar Scots pine, churma etc.


Three types of minerals are mined on the territory of Azerbaijan: metals, non-metallic minerals and fossil fuels.

The most important are fossil fuels – oil and natural gas. For their output, 47 thousand km² of the total area of the country –  86,6 thousand km²  – is exploited. The amount of oil mined in Azerbaijan comprises 1% of the world oil reserves.

Azerbaijan has been the leader in the oil output already in past. First oil well was made in 1848 in Baku. During the years 1897 – 1907, the largest pipeline in world had been constructed. It lead from Baku to the georgian town Batumi by the Black Sea. It was more than 800 km long and had 20 cm in diameter. The first tank truck for the oil transit was also constructed in Baku. Its name was Zoroaster. The oil output from the sea started in 1949 in the metropolis of Azerbaijan as well.

Azerbaijani oil has an exceptional value at the world market. The number of investors coming to the country has been rising. Some experts say that underground reserves of the oil in Azerbaijan reach more than 3 billion tons. The largest oil and gas fields are on the Absheron peninsula, on the continental shelves of the Caspian Sea, in southeastern Shirvan, central savannas, in Gobustan, Siazan etc. Small Caucasus is rich in metals (iron, titanium, gold, silver, copper, cobalt etc.), limestone is mined in Gobustan, Absheron and Tovuz, travertine in Nakchivan, marble in Dashkesan etc.


Honorárny konzulát
Azerbajdžanskej republiky

Klobučnícka 4
811 01 Bratislava
Slovenská republika

Telefón: 00421/2/54 64 9041
Fax: 00421/2/54 64 9043
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